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Chronic kidney disease

  • Definition

    Chronic kidney disease is the slow loss of kidney function over time. The main function of the kidneys is to remove wastes and excess water from the body.


    Alternative Names

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure


    Causes, incidence, and risk factors

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over time. In the early stages, there may be no symptoms. The loss of function usually takes months or years to occur. It may be so slow that symptoms do not occur until kidney function is less than one-tenth of normal.

    The final stage of chronic kidney disease is called end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The kidneys no longer function and the patient needs dialysis or a kidney transplant.

    Chronic kidney disease and ESRD affect more than 2 out of every 1,000 people in the United States.

    Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two most common causes and account for most cases.

    Many other diseases and conditions can damage the kidneys, including:

    • Problems with the arteries leading to or inside the kidneys
    • Birth defects of the kidneys (such as polycystic kidney disease)
    • Some pain medications and other drugs
    • Certain toxic chemicals
    • Autoimmune disorders (such as systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma)
    • Injury or trauma
    • Glomerulonephritis
    • Kidney stones and infection
    • Reflux nephropathy (in which the kidneys are damaged by the backward flow of urine into the kidneys)
    • Other kidney diseases

    Chronic kidney disease leads to a buildup of fluid and waste products in the body. This condition affects most body systems and functions, including red blood cell production, blood pressure control, and vitamin D and bone health.