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Diabetes insipidus - nephrogenic

  • Definition

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a disorder in which a defect in the small tubes (tubules) in the kidneys causes a person to pass a large amount of urine. The tubules allow water to be removed from the body or reabsorbed.

    See also: Diabetes insipidus - central

    Alternative Names

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Congenital diabetes insipidus

    Causes, incidence, and risk factors

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus occurs when the kidney tubules do not respond to a chemical in the body called antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also called vasopressin. ADH normally tells the kidneys to make the urine more concentrated.

    As a result of the defect, the kidneys release an excessive amount of water into the urine, producing a large quantity of very dilute urine. This makes you produce large amounts of urine.

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is rare. Congenital diabetes insipidus is present at birth as a result of an inherited defect that usually affects men, although women can pass the gene on to their children.

    Most commonly, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus develops because of other reasons. This is called an acquired disorder. Factors that can trigger the acquired form of this condition include:

    • Blockage in the urinary tract
    • High calcium levels
    • Low potassium levels
    • Use of certain drugs (lithium, demeclocycline, amphotericin B)