Diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome

  • Alternative Names

    Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma; Nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma (NKHHC); Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma (HONK)


    Symptoms
    • Coma
    • Confusion
    • Convulsions
    • Increased thirst
    • Increased urination (at the beginning of the syndrome)
    • Lethargy
    • Nausea
    • Weakness
    • Weight loss

    Symptoms may get worse over a period of days or weeks.

    Other symptoms that may occur with this disease:

    • Dysfunctional movement
    • Loss of feeling or function of muscles
    • Speech impairment

    Signs and tests

    Signs may include:

    • Extreme dehydration
    • High temperature -- higher than 38 degrees Centigrade (100.4 degrees Fahrenheit)
    • Increased heart rate
    • Low systolic blood pressure

    Test results include:

    • High serum osmolarity (concentration)
    • Higher than normal BUN and creatinine
    • Higher than normal serum sodium
    • Mild ketone buildup (ketosis)
    • Very high blood glucose

    Evaluation for possible causes may include:

    • Blood cultures
    • Chest x-ray
    • Electrocardiogram (ECG)
    • Urinalysis