Down syndrome

  • Alternative Names

    Trisomy 21


    Prevention

    Experts recommend genetic counseling for persons with a family history of Down syndrome who wish to have a baby.

    A woman's risk of having a child with Down syndrome increases as she gets older. The risk is significantly higher among women age 35 and older.

    Couples who already have a baby with Down syndrome have an increased risk of having another baby with the condition.

    Tests such as nuchal translucency ultrasound, amniocentesis, or chorionic villus sampling can be done on a fetus during the first few months of pregnancy to check for Down syndrome. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends offering Down syndrome screening tests to all pregnant women, regardless of age.


    References

    ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 77: screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jan;109(1):217-227.

    AAP Committee on Genetics. Health supervision for children with Down syndrome. Pediatrics. 2001 Feb;107(2):442-449.

    Davidson MA. Primary care for children and adolescents with Down syndrome. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2008;55:1099-1111.

    Simpson JL, Otaño L. Prenatal genetic diagnosis. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, eds. Obstetrics:Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2007:chap 7.