• Alternative Names

    Osteomalacia in children; Vitamin D deficiency; Renal rickets; Hepatic rickets

    • Bone pain or tenderness
      • Arms
      • Legs
      • Pelvis
      • Spine
    • Dental deformities
      • Delayed formation of teeth
      • Decreased muscle tone (loss of muscle strength)
      • Defects in the structure of teeth; holes in the enamel
      • Increased cavities in the teeth (dental caries)
      • Progressive weakness
    • Impaired growth
    • Increased bone fractures
    • Muscle cramps
    • Short stature (adults less than 5 feet tall)
    • Skeletal deformities
      • Asymmetrical or odd-shaped skull
      • Bowlegs
      • Bumps in the ribcage (rachitic rosary)
      • Breastbone pushed forward (pigeon chest)
      • Pelvic deformities
      • Spine deformities (spine curves abnormally, including scoliosis or kyphosis)

    Signs and tests

    A physical exam reveals tenderness or pain in the bones, rather than in the joints or muscles.

    The following tests may help diagnose rickets:

    • Arterial blood gases
    • Blood tests (serum calcium)
    • Bone biopsy (rarely done)
    • Bone x-rays
    • Serum alkaline phosphatase
    • Serum phosphorus

    Other tests and procedures include the following:

    • ALP (alkaline phosphatase) isoenzyme
    • Calcium (ionized)
    • PTH
    • Urine calcium