• First Aid
    • Call 911 for immediate medical help.
    • Check the person's airway, breathing, and circulation. If necessary, begin rescue breathing and CPR.
    • Even if the person is able to breathe on his or her own, continue to check rate of breathing at least every 5 minutes until help arrives.
    • If the person is conscious and does NOT have an injury to the head, leg, neck, or spine, place the person in the shock position. Lay the person on the back and elevate the legs about 12 inches. Do NOT elevate the head. If raising the legs will cause pain or potential harm, leave the person lying flat.
    • Give appropriate first aid for any wounds, injuries, or illnesses.
    • Keep the person warm and comfortable. Loosen tight clothing.


    • Turn the head to one side so he or she will not choke. Do this as long as there is no suspicion of spinal injury.
    • If a spinal injury is suspected, "log roll" him or her instead. Keep the person's head, neck, and back in line, and roll him or her as a unit.

    Do Not
    • Do NOT give the person anything by mouth, including anything to eat or drink.
    • Do NOT move the person with a known or suspected spinal injury.
    • Do NOT wait for milder shock symptoms to worsen before calling for emergency medical help.

    Call immediately for emergency medical assistance if

    Call 911 any time a person has symptoms of shock. Stay with the person and follow the first aid steps until medical help arrives.