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Definition Herpes simplex is a viral infection that mainly affects the mouth or genital area. Causes, incidence, and risk factors There are two strains of herpes simplex viruses: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is usually associated with infections of the lips, mouth, and face. It is the most common herpes simplex virus and many people develop it in childhood. HSV-1 often causes sores (lesions) inside the mouth, such as cold sores (fever blisters), or infection of the eye (especially the conjunctiva and cornea). It can also lead to infection of the lining of the brain (meningoencephalitis). It is transmitted by contact with infected saliva. By adulthood, 30 - 90% of people will have antibodies to HSV-1. The likelihood of childhood infection is higher among those with lower socioeconomic status. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is usually sexually transmitted. Symptoms include genital ulcers or sores. However, some people with HSV-2 have no symptoms. Up to 30% of adults in the U.S. have a...
A newly concluded study conducted at the University of Texas
Southwestern Medical center offers hope to women living with
genital herpes who wish to bear children. Because there is a small
risk of passing the infection to a baby during the birth process,
many herpes-infected mothers have delivered their babies via
Caesarean section. For mothers experiencing herpes symptoms at the
time of delivery, a C-section is required. The results of this new
study, conducted with the participation of pharmaceutical
manufacturer GlaxoSmithKline, suggests that vaginal delivery may
now be an option for women not experiencing herpes symptoms at the
time of birth.
The danger of infection results from what doctors refer to
asymptomatic shedding, a term that describes the
ability of those infected with herpes to transmit the virus even
when they are not experiencing symptoms. In the case of pregnant
women, this shedding can often take place in either the birth canal
or the genital region, pla...
Not all forms of communication can be heard which is why pain is difficult to spot in children. Young infants cannot say, "Hey mom, my head hurts." Toddlers may not have learned the word for pain yet. And teenagers may not be speaking to you at all. If complaints of pain cannot be heard, a caregiver for children must be on the lookout for other signs that pain is affecting the lives of young people.
How young is pain felt or perceived by the developing brain? Pain becomes a signal in the brain before a newborn is born. Preterm neonates react to painful stimuli of a venous puncture . This reaction can be seen by special brain mapping techniques that measure changes in blood flow and oxygenation. Hospital staff in neonatal intensive care units must be on the lookout for pain. They know that when the potential for pain is present, the lack of a reliable form of communication becomes problematic.
When are other times that pain can be felt by children besides in the hospital f...
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