The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of the neck. A retrosternal thyroid refers to the abnormal placement of all or part of the thyroid gland below the breastbone (sternum).
Substernal thyroid; Mediastinal goiter
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Symptoms Blurred vision or double vision (diplopia) Bone pain or tenderness of the breastbone (sternum) Chest pain Confusion Cough -- dry Fatigue Fever Headache Nausea Skin rash , including pinpoint red spots ( petechiae ), ulcers, or other skin lesions Sweating -- unusual, excessive at night Swollen glands Unintentional weight loss Note: People with a normal immune system may have no symptoms at all. Signs and tests Physical examination may reveal: Abnormal breath sounds Fast heart rate Fever Mental status changes Stiff neck Tests that may be done include: Blood culture CT scan of the head Sputum culture and stain Lung biopsy Bronchoscopy Spinal tap to obtain a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and other tests to check for signs of infection Chest x-ray Cryptococcal antigen test (looks for a certain molecule that the Cryptococcus fungus can shed into the blood)
Definition Pectus excavatum describes an abnormal formation of the rib cage that gives the chest a caved-in or sunken appearance. Alternative Names Funnel chest Considerations Pectus excavatum is a congenital (present at birth) abnormality that can be mild or severe. It is caused by too much growth of the connective tissue that joins the ribs to the breastbone. This causes the sternum to malform inward. The child typically has a depression in the center of the chest over the sternum, and this may appear quite deep. If pectus excavatum is severe, it may affect the heart and lungs, making exercise difficult. Also, the appearance of the chest may cause psychological difficulty for the child. Pectus excavatum may occur as the only abnormality, or together with other syndromes. Common Causes Pectus excavatum will often occur by itself without any family history or other defects or problems. Other causes include: Familial pectus excavatum Marfan syndrome Poland syndrome Rickets
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