During pre-op testing for my father’s back surgery, the EKG showed a “bundle.” What exactly is a bundle and what does it mean for his health?
The heart's electrical activity normally starts in the heart's natural pacemaker (called the sinoatrial node), which is situated on the upper right chamber of the heart (atrium). From there the electrical impulse travels to the left upper chamber (atrium) and into the atrioventricular (AV) node. Electrical impulses travel through certain cells that are specially designed for the purpose of carrying those impulses. They carry them faster than regular heart muscle cells and are located near one another. When there are many such cells together in a bunch we call this grouping a node. From the AV node the electrical impulse travels down the bundle of His and divides into the right and left bundle branches. When the electrical impulse carrying cells are arranged in a line to carry many impulses together we call this a bundle, if it is ...
Joan Ohayon is a Clinically Registered Nurse Practitioner who is taking on her blog for MultipleSclerosisCentral as part of her official duties at the National Institute of Health (NIH). Joan works for the Neuroimmunology Branch of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) of the NIH. Joan is an associate investigator in multiple research studies involving treatments and imaging in multiple sclerosis (MS), along with a few studies involved with a rare chronic neurological disorder, HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Currently she is focusing on disability and magnetic resonance imaging in MS. Ohayon is also actively involved with the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, National Capital Chapter. She is their Research Advocate and on their Professional Advisory Committee. Ohayon’s work with the NIH and National Multiple Sclerosis Society proves that she is committed to helping people with MS, their families and ...
There is a lot of talk about research and medical advances
in the treatment of multiple sclerosis , but I would like to return to the fundamentals of MS
care and how these new treatment options fall into the framework of MS care.
There are three important arms of MS treatment:
Modifying Agents - Medications that are used to change the course of MS, but
which you may not feel any current effect from (though you may have side
effects unfortunately), but are like an insurance policy for the future. There
are 5 FDA approved medications for Relapsing forms of MS: Avonex ®, Rebif ®,
Betaseron ®, Copaxone ® and Tysabri ®. Novantrone® is a chemotherapy drug, also FDA
approved for worsening relapsing MS or secondary progressive MS.
Most of the research you read about
is aimed at disease modification: the oral medications (Cladribine, Fingolimod,
Teriflunomide, BG00012, Laquinomod, etc.); the newer injectables (Atacicept
etc.); the IV infusions ...
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