Part of the Bill of Rights, the 8th Amendment to the United States Constitution, guarantees that prisoners shall not be subjected to cruel and unusual punishment . This clause prohibits torture and has been widely cited in support of abolishing the death penalty. It also forbids the withholding of medical treatment from prisoners in need of treatment. A prisoner in need of medical care has nowhere to go but the prison authorities. To withhold treatment from a prisoner would be using the medical condition of the prisoner as a part of their punishment - and this is held to be cruel and unusual in a long line of 8th Amendment cases. Cases hold that the infliction of pain from an untreated medical condition, or indifference by prison authorities to the medical needs of the prisoner, is cruel and unusual punishment. The Federal Third Circuit Court of Appeals described the standard for 8th Amendment medical treatment cases in Iseley v. Beard . 1 First, the co...
There is a lot of talk about research and medical advances
in the treatment of multiple sclerosis , but I would like to return to the fundamentals of MS
care and how these new treatment options fall into the framework of MS care.
There are three important arms of MS treatment:
Modifying Agents - Medications that are used to change the course of MS, but
which you may not feel any current effect from (though you may have side
effects unfortunately), but are like an insurance policy for the future. There
are 5 FDA approved medications for Relapsing forms of MS: Avonex ®, Rebif ®,
Betaseron ®, Copaxone ® and Tysabri ®. Novantrone® is a chemotherapy drug, also FDA
approved for worsening relapsing MS or secondary progressive MS.
Most of the research you read about
is aimed at disease modification: the oral medications (Cladribine, Fingolimod,
Teriflunomide, BG00012, Laquinomod, etc.); the newer injectables (Atacicept
etc.); the IV infusions ...
Alternative Names Dacryostenosis; Blocked nasolacrimal duct; Nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) Treatment Carefully clean the eyelids with a warm, wet washcloth. Be careful not to use the same part of the washcloth more than once. Some doctors suggest gently massaging the area 2 - 3 times a day. Using a clean finger, rub the area from the inside corner of the eye toward the nose. This may help to open the tear duct. If an eye infection develops, your health care provider may recommend that you use eye drops or ointment. A blocked tear duct that does not improve may need to be opened by a probing procedure. This may require anesthesia . Rarely, a small tube or stent needs to be placed in the tear duct to keep it open. In adults, the cause of the blockage must be treated. This may re-open the duct if there is not much damage. Surgery to reconstruct the passageway may be needed to re-establish normal tear drainage, and stop the overflow onto the cheek. Support Groups Expectations (prognosis) Most...
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