Part of the Bill of Rights, the 8th Amendment to the United States Constitution, guarantees that prisoners shall not be subjected to cruel and unusual punishment . This clause prohibits torture and has been widely cited in support of abolishing the death penalty. It also forbids the withholding of medical treatment from prisoners in need of treatment. A prisoner in need of medical care has nowhere to go but the prison authorities. To withhold treatment from a prisoner would be using the medical condition of the prisoner as a part of their punishment - and this is held to be cruel and unusual in a long line of 8th Amendment cases. Cases hold that the infliction of pain from an untreated medical condition, or indifference by prison authorities to the medical needs of the prisoner, is cruel and unusual punishment. The Federal Third Circuit Court of Appeals described the standard for 8th Amendment medical treatment cases in Iseley v. Beard . 1 First, the co...
There is a lot of talk about research and medical advances
in the treatment of multiple sclerosis , but I would like to return to the fundamentals of MS
care and how these new treatment options fall into the framework of MS care.
There are three important arms of MS treatment:
Modifying Agents - Medications that are used to change the course of MS, but
which you may not feel any current effect from (though you may have side
effects unfortunately), but are like an insurance policy for the future. There
are 5 FDA approved medications for Relapsing forms of MS: Avonex ®, Rebif ®,
Betaseron ®, Copaxone ® and Tysabri ®. Novantrone® is a chemotherapy drug, also FDA
approved for worsening relapsing MS or secondary progressive MS.
Most of the research you read about
is aimed at disease modification: the oral medications (Cladribine, Fingolimod,
Teriflunomide, BG00012, Laquinomod, etc.); the newer injectables (Atacicept
etc.); the IV infusions ...
Scientists around the world are looking for the best way to treat chronic pain patients. But finding evidence that supports the best practice model isn't always easy. In this article, researchers from the Netherlands ask the question, Are we measuring what we need to measure? Many quality studies with high levels of evidence don't provide guidance for real life situations. Patients may be given one type of treatment for the duration of the study. If the symptoms get worse or they aren't helped, they must still finish out the study. In clinical practice, changes are made right away in treatment based on patient needs, wants, and individual characteristics. Sometimes research results reported depend on how the study was conducted. How the data was collected, measured, and analyzed can make a difference. It's not uncommon for different approaches to yield different results for the same group. How do we know which interpretation is correct? Because of these problems and other research dilemm...
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