During pre-op testing for my father’s back surgery, the EKG showed a “bundle.” What exactly is a bundle and what does it mean for his health?
The heart's electrical activity normally starts in the heart's natural pacemaker (called the sinoatrial node), which is situated on the upper right chamber of the heart (atrium). From there the electrical impulse travels to the left upper chamber (atrium) and into the atrioventricular (AV) node. Electrical impulses travel through certain cells that are specially designed for the purpose of carrying those impulses. They carry them faster than regular heart muscle cells and are located near one another. When there are many such cells together in a bunch we call this grouping a node. From the AV node the electrical impulse travels down the bundle of His and divides into the right and left bundle branches. When the electrical impulse carrying cells are arranged in a line to carry many impulses together we call this a bundle, if it is ...
Definition His bundle electrography is a test that measures electrical activity in a part of the heart that carries the signals that control the time between heartbeats (contractions). Alternative Names His bundle electrogram; HBE; His bundle recording; Electrogram - His bundle How the test is performed The bundle of His is a group of fibers that carry electrical impulses through the center of the heart. If these signals are blocked, you will have problems with your heartbeat. The His bundle electrography is part of an electrophysiology (EP) study. You are given a mild sedative before the test. An intravenous catheter (IV line) is inserted into your arm so that you can be given medicines during the test. Electrocardiogram (ECG) leads are placed on your arms and legs. Your arm, neck, or groin will be cleaned and numbed with a local anesthetic. After the area is numb, the cardiologist makes a small cut in a vein and inserts a thin tube called a catheter inside. The catheter is carefully moved t...
There is a lot of talk about research and medical advances
in the treatment of multiple sclerosis , but I would like to return to the fundamentals of MS
care and how these new treatment options fall into the framework of MS care.
There are three important arms of MS treatment:
Modifying Agents - Medications that are used to change the course of MS, but
which you may not feel any current effect from (though you may have side
effects unfortunately), but are like an insurance policy for the future. There
are 5 FDA approved medications for Relapsing forms of MS: Avonex ®, Rebif ®,
Betaseron ®, Copaxone ® and Tysabri ®. Novantrone® is a chemotherapy drug, also FDA
approved for worsening relapsing MS or secondary progressive MS.
Most of the research you read about
is aimed at disease modification: the oral medications (Cladribine, Fingolimod,
Teriflunomide, BG00012, Laquinomod, etc.); the newer injectables (Atacicept
etc.); the IV infusions ...
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