During pre-op testing for my father’s back surgery, the EKG showed a “bundle.” What exactly is a bundle and what does it mean for his health?
The heart's electrical activity normally starts in the heart's natural pacemaker (called the sinoatrial node), which is situated on the upper right chamber of the heart (atrium). From there the electrical impulse travels to the left upper chamber (atrium) and into the atrioventricular (AV) node. Electrical impulses travel through certain cells that are specially designed for the purpose of carrying those impulses. They carry them faster than regular heart muscle cells and are located near one another. When there are many such cells together in a bunch we call this grouping a node. From the AV node the electrical impulse travels down the bundle of His and divides into the right and left bundle branches. When the electrical impulse carrying cells are arranged in a line to carry many impulses together we call this a bundle, if it is ...
Joan Ohayon is a Clinically Registered Nurse Practitioner who is taking on her blog for MultipleSclerosisCentral as part of her official duties at the National Institute of Health (NIH). Joan works for the Neuroimmunology Branch of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) of the NIH. Joan is an associate investigator in multiple research studies involving treatments and imaging in multiple sclerosis (MS), along with a few studies involved with a rare chronic neurological disorder, HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Currently she is focusing on disability and magnetic resonance imaging in MS. Ohayon is also actively involved with the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, National Capital Chapter. She is their Research Advocate and on their Professional Advisory Committee. Ohayon’s work with the NIH and National Multiple Sclerosis Society proves that she is committed to helping people with MS, their families and ...
I suffer from Chronic migraines I have been seeing a specialist for them he started giving me nerve block shots in the right side of my head right above my right ear. The last injection was in October 2011 by the middle of November I noticed a big indention starting at the hairline of my forehead and extending past the injection sight. Could this indention be from the injections? Will it ever go away? I have noticed that where the needle entered there is a tender spot and if I touch it, rub, or comb my hair I get a tingling sensation on the back of my head. Please help! Pamela.
Sometimes, injections of steroids can cause tissue atrophy or wastage and often this is temporary and returns to normal skin tissue in contour, etc... We can't explain the sensitivity of the skin, though; hope it too gets better.
Good luck, John Claude Krusz and Teri Robert
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