What does one do if she experiences major chest pains and medical examinations reveal no heart or BP abnormalities? This is a particularly good question because it applies to all fields of medicine, and to all people who at some time in their lives will become patients (Yes, even doctors). If a person is experiencing symptoms that are not accompanied by signs of disease, or evidence in the form of an abnormal test, the diagnostic work-up will sometimes cease. Yet the patient still has the symptoms. What should be done? First, were all the elements of your complaint dealt with? Please see my prior posting about preparing for a visit to a cardiologist . It is appropriate for a visit to any physician. Second, what constitutes a full work-up for chest pain? This is actually different depending upon the likelihood of different processes causing the discomfort. Arteriosclerotic coronary artery disease is quite unlikely in very young people (but congenital disease may be more ...
Congestive heart failure - left
The goals of treatments are:
Treat the disease that is causing the heart failure
Relieve stress on the heart
Reduce risks of worsening heart failure
You should see a heart specialist. You may need to stay in the hospital when symptoms are severe.
Treatment may involve surgery or cardiac catheterization to open blocked heart arteries, medicines for high blood pressure, and lifestyle changes such as stopping drinking alcohol.
Persons with heart failure should eat less salt, avoid alcohol, and exercise moderately.
Medicines that may be used include:
Diuretics such as furosemide (Lasix) or spironolactone (Aldactone) to help the body get rid of extra fluid
Beta blockers and ACE inhibitors to reduce the stress on the heart and to prevent further muscle damage and scarring
Digoxin to increase muscle strength and slow down abnormally fast ...
If I have right knee osteoarthritis, do I have to work out my left side as well?
I was recently asked by a patient why he had to work out both sides of his body in physical therapy if only his right knee hurt. I can understand some of the confusion. After all, if your right shoulder were painful and inflamed and required an injection, the medication would only be put at the site of inflammation -- in your right shoulder. You would not be a candidate for a right and a left shoulder injection! However, physical therapy, for the most part, is much different. I'll explain.
There are two basic components to physical therapy -- passive and active. In the passive component, the therapist may apply ice, heat, ultrasound, electrical stimulation, and other modalities to the painful area. For the most part, these modalities are only placed at the site of injury (there are a few exceptions that are beyond the scope of this blog). So, in this sense, physical therapy is functioning si...
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