In mitral valve stenosis, the mitral valve leaflets are fused together by scar tissue, gradually narrowing the valve and slowing the flow of blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle.
For blood to circulate effectively through the heart, each of four heart valves must be functioning properly. In mitral valve stenosis, the valve becomes stiff, and can no longer open and shut freely. It may also be leaky (mitral regurgitation or insufficiency), allowing some blood to flow backwards.
Emphysema is one of the main diseases included in the diagnosis “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” or COPD. The other is chronic... Read more »