14 Lesser Known Risks of Smoking
We all know smoking kills through lung cancer and other oral and throat cancers. But there are also many lesser-known risks to lighting up.
A recent study published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine found that women who smoke during pregnancy increase their baby's risk of asthma. More importantly, they found this was true only in the first trimester of pregnancy. Smoking during the third trimester or during the first year of birth showed no such risk.
A 2009 study confirmed the widely held hypothesis that smoking increases the risk of developing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a debilitating neurological disease. Researchers found that longer someone smoked, the greater the risk of developing ALS. Those who smoked for more than 33 years had a two-fold increased risk of ALS compared to people who never smoked.
It's been almost 20 years since scientists first discovered that smoking increases risk for osteoporosis and bone fractures, but a recent study has shown how it weakens bones. Researchers found that smokers produce large amounts of two proteins that increase production of osteoclasts, which break down old bone.
COPD is a term used to encompass emphysema and chronic bronchitis, which are both respiratory diseases caused largely by smoking. There is no cure for COPD, only treatments that can slow the progression of the disease.
Ectopic pregnancy occurs when the embryo implants outside the uterus in the Fallopian tube. In the uterus, certain genes experience reduced production when it prepares for normal implantation of the embryo. But, smoking reduces the production of these same genes in the Fallopian tube, which mimics the environment of the uterus and allows the embryo to implant there instead.
A recent study has discovered that breathing in second-hand smoke increases risk of developing type 2 diabetes and obesity. Researchers used a blood marker to identify which study participants were exposed to smoke and they found that these participants showed signs of factors that lead to type 2 diabetes.
For fathers who smoke, recent research suggests that smoking damages DNA in the reproductive cells inherited by their children. This genetic damage can put your children at greater risk of developing certain cancers, such as childhood leukemia, and other diseases later in life.
A recent study published in the Archives of Dermatology has found a relationship between smoking and increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), a form of skin cancer. Researchers did a systematic review and meta-analysis of previous studies and found that smoking increased risk of SCC by 52 percent.
A 2012 study found evidence that the mouths of smokers have a chaotic ecosystem of bacteria, and are much more susceptible to harmful bacteria. This can cause gum disease, such as periodontitis, which can result in bone loss and loss of teeth. It's also possible that smoking affects the body's ability fight infection.
One studyconcluded that men who smoke have a higher rate of cognitive decline, especially older men. Researchers found that decline was most evident in executive function - which includes working memory, attention span, problem-solving, verbal reasoning, mental flexibility, multi-tasking, inhibition and monitoring of actions.
Smokers are two to four times more likely to have a stroke or heart disease than people who have never smoked. It narrows the blood vessels, which can result in blockage of large arteries in the arms and legs. Smoking also can cause a weakening or swelling of the aorta, the main artery of the body, where it runs through the abdomen.
Smoking is known to cause infertility in both men and women. For women who are able to get pregnant, smoking increases the risk of preterm delivery, stillbirth, low birth weight and sudden infant death syndrome. Another thing to remember is that women who smoke and are taking birth control pills are at greater risk of developing blood clots.
Peptic ulcers, which are located in the digestive tract, occur when a person has a certain bacterial infection. Research has shown that smokers are more likely to develop peptic ulcers than non-smokers. In severe cases, peptic ulcers can lead to death.
Researchers from Tulane University surveyed 7,684 men about smoking and erectile dysfunction and found that there was a statistically significant link between the number of cigarettes men smoked and the likelihood that they would experience erectile dysfunction.