Introduction A woman's hormone levels normally change throughout her life for a variety of reasons, and these hormonal changes can lead to changes in her breasts. Many such hormonal changes occur during pregnancy, changes that may influence a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer later in life. As a result, over several decades a considerable amount of research has been and continues to be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), influences a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer later in life. Current Knowledge In February 2003, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened a workshop of over 100 of the world’s leading experts who study pregnancy and breast cancer risk. Workshop participants reviewed existing population-based, clinical , and animal studies on the relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. Th...
I had lunch last week with a middle-aged girlfriend. As we chatted, she recounted an episode when her teenage son developed a migraine headache at school and the staff didn’t totally recognize the situation. After she completed her story, I asked whether she, too, had migraines. She said she was actually experiencing a low-level one while we were enjoying lunch. She said she had developed these headaches later in life and their emergence seemed to coincide when she went into a surgically-induced menopause.
The Migraine Trust reports that for many people, migraines start happening before the age of 40 and they rarely start later in life. In fact, the frequency and the severity of migraines often decreases – and even disappears -- around the age of 50. However, a small number of studies that looked at the relationship between menopause and migraine headaches found that 45 percent of women reported their migraines get worse as they go through menopause. About the same percent...
Hormone therapy (HT) uses one or more female hormones, commonly estrogen and progestin and sometimes testosterone, to treat symptoms of menopause .
Symptoms of menopause include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, mood swings, sleep disorders, and decreased sexual desire. Hormone therapy comes as a pill, patch, injection, vaginal cream, tablet, or ring.
HRT; Estrogen replacement therapy; ERT; Hormone replacement therapy
Hormone therapy may help relieve some of the bothersome symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness and pain with intercourse. The hormone estrogen protects against thinning of the bones ( osteoporosis ).
However, taking hormones may also increase your risk for:
You and your doctor should decide whether hormone therapy is right for you. The key is to weigh the risk...
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