Next, the tester may give a second list ("Tuesday's shopping list"), and see if the subject is able to keep the items from each list separate, or if the two lists become confused. Finally, there is a short delay of 20 minutes, during which the subject is given other tasks to perform, and then the tester again asks the subject to recall Monday's list. Patients with different kinds of brain damage or disorder also show reliable patterns of performance.
BVMT-R is a test of visual learning and recall. The examinee is presented with six geometric figures each on a separate page of the Recall Stimulus Booklet. In three Learning Trials, the respondent views the Recall Stimulus page for ten seconds and then is asked to draw as many of the figures as possible in their correct location on a blank page.
After a 25-minute delay which includes primarily verbal activities, the task is repeated. Then, the respondent is asked to identify which of the 12 figures in the Recognition Stimulus Booklet were included in the six geometric figures on the original Recall Stimulus page. As a final step, an optional Copy trial may be administered to screen for severe visuoconstructive deficits and to help in scoring recall responses.
Tests which focus on executive functions include the California Card Sorting Test (CST).
CST is a test used to determine problem-solving skills, or executive functions, which are interrelated sets of abilities that include cognitive flexibility, concept formation, and self-monitoring. The examinee is presented three sets of six stimulus cards and asked to sort the cards, first in a free sort followed by a directed sort (ie. by color, by symbol, by number of symbols, etc.) The test is useful in identifying impaired executive functions caused by lesions in the frontal lobe.
NOTE: Patients with impaired executive function need not have impaired memory.
Tests which focus on visual perception and spatial processing include the Judgment of Line Orientation Test (JLO).
JLO is a test which measures pure spatial judgment and requires the examinee to determine the location and directionality of a series of lines. It tests one’s ability to judge angular relationships.
Tests which focus on language and word retrieval include the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT).
COWAT is a measure of a person's ability to make verbal associations to specified letters (i.e., C, F, and L). This measure is a useful component of a neuropsychological battery as it is able to detect changes in word association fluency often found with various disorders. This is the test where you will be asked to name as many words as possible beginning with a single letter. Information regarding total numbers of words produced as well as frequency of perseverations, breaking set, using the same word stem, and using a proper noun is provided.