The goals of osteoporosis treatment are to:
- Control pain from the disease
- Slow down or stop bone loss
- Prevent bone fractures with medicines that strengthen bone
- Minimize the risk of falls that might cause fractures
There are several different treatments for osteoporosis, including lifestyle changes and a variety of medications.
Medications are used to strengthen bones when:
- Osteoporosis has been diagnosed by a bone density study.
- Osteopenia (thin bones, but not osteoporosis) has been diagnosed by a bone density study, if a bone fracture has occurred.
Bisphosphonates are the primary drugs used to both prevent and treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
- Bisphosphonates taken by mouth include alendronate (Fosamax), ibandronate (Boniva), and risedronate (Actonel). Most are taken by mouth, usually once a week or once a month.
- Bisphosphonates given through a vein (intravenously) are taken less often.
Calcitonin is a medicine that slows the rate of bone loss and relieves bone pain. It comes as a nasal spray or injection. The main side effects are nasal irritation from the spray form and nausea from the injectable form.
Calcitonin appears to be less effective than bisphosphonates.
HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY
Sometimes, if estrogen has helped a woman, and she cannot take other options for preventing or treating osteoporosis, the doctor may recommend that she continue using hormone therapy. If you are considering taking hormone therapy to prevent osteoporosis, discuss the risks with your doctor.
Review Date: 11/08/2010
Reviewed By: Ari S. Eckman, MD, Chief, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Trinitas Regional Medical Center, Elizabeth, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.