In healthy men and women, urine does not contain any blood that can be seen with the eye, called "gross blood," nor does it contain red blood cells that can be discovered with the aid of a microscope. The discovery of either gross or microscopic blood in urine is a sure indication of the need to examine and evaluate the patient to discover the cause of this abnormality. The conditions that can lead to either gross or microscopic blood in the urine are many and varied. In adults, a careful history to describe the details of the bloody urine, a physical examination and laboratory studies are the first step in unearthing the cause. Imaging with x-rays, ultrasound, CAT/MRI scans are the next step and will usually discover the cause. In adult women, infection of the bladder or kidneys, urinary stones, and tumors of the urinary bladder, kidneys are the most common causes. In adult men, enlargement and/or infection of the prostate, bladder infection and...
Urine collection - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen
Normal values will depend on the specific test ordered, for example, whether you've had a urinalysis or urine culture.
What abnormal results mean
If the urine sample was sent for urinalysis, abnormal results may indicate the presence of white blood cells, red blood cells, or excessive amounts of protein.
If the urine sample was sent for urine culture, abnormal results may indicate excessive growth of bacteria, a urinary tract infection , or a bladder infection.
RF. ESR. Anti-CCP. ANA. CPR. No, these aren’t codes used by secret agents to communicate their missions. They’re names of blood tests used in diagnosing and managing rheumatoid arthritis. When you’re new to this disease, they can seem as mysterious and impenetrable as a secret language. What do they measure? What do the numbers mean? What’s normal, what isn’t? This post is all about demystifying RA blood tests .
RA Blood Tests
There are a number of blood tests that can be used when doctors are trying to find out if you have RA, as well as indicators of how the disease is managed. Some of the most common blood tests are:
Rheumatoid Factor (RF) . RF is a type of antibody that may be associated with inflammation. This is usually one of the first tests your family doctor will order if they suspect you might have inflammatory arthritis. However, it’s important to know that 20-30 percent of people with RA are negative for RF (also called seron...
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