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In healthy men and women, urine does not contain any blood that can be seen with the eye, called "gross blood," nor does it contain red blood cells that can be discovered with the aid of a microscope. The discovery of either gross or microscopic blood in urine is a sure indication of the need to examine and evaluate the patient to discover the cause of this abnormality. The conditions that can lead to either gross or microscopic blood in the urine are many and varied. In adults, a careful history to describe the details of the bloody urine, a physical examination and laboratory studies are the first step in unearthing the cause. Imaging with x-rays, ultrasound, CAT/MRI scans are the next step and will usually discover the cause. In adult women, infection of the bladder or kidneys, urinary stones, and tumors of the urinary bladder, kidneys are the most common causes. In adult men, enlargement and/or infection of the prostate, bladder infection and...
Normal values are between 1.020 to 1.028.
Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.
What abnormal results mean
Increased urine specific gravity may be due to:
Addison's disease (rare)
Diarrhea that causes dehydration
(related to decreased blood flow to the kidneys)
Renal arterial stenosis
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion ( SIADH )
Decreased urine specific gravity may be due to:
Aldosteronism (very rare)
Excessive fluid intake
Diabetes insipidus - central
Diabetes insipidus - nephrogenic
Renal tubular necrosis
Severe kidney infection (pyelonephritis)
Additional conditions under whi...
RF. ESR. Anti-CCP. ANA. CPR. No, these aren’t codes used by secret agents to communicate their missions. They’re names of blood tests used in diagnosing and managing rheumatoid arthritis. When you’re new to this disease, they can seem as mysterious and impenetrable as a secret language. What do they measure? What do the numbers mean? What’s normal, what isn’t? This post is all about demystifying RA blood tests .
RA Blood Tests
There are a number of blood tests that can be used when doctors are trying to find out if you have RA, as well as indicators of how the disease is managed. Some of the most common blood tests are:
Rheumatoid Factor (RF) . RF is a type of antibody that may be associated with inflammation. This is usually one of the first tests your family doctor will order if they suspect you might have inflammatory arthritis. However, it’s important to know that 20-30 percent of people with RA are negative for RF (also called seron...
You should know
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