In healthy men and women, urine does not contain any blood that can be seen with the eye, called "gross blood," nor does it contain red blood cells that can be discovered with the aid of a microscope. The discovery of either gross or microscopic blood in urine is a sure indication of the need to examine and evaluate the patient to discover the cause of this abnormality. The conditions that can lead to either gross or microscopic blood in the urine are many and varied. In adults, a careful history to describe the details of the bloody urine, a physical examination and laboratory studies are the first step in unearthing the cause. Imaging with x-rays, ultrasound, CAT/MRI scans are the next step and will usually discover the cause. In adult women, infection of the bladder or kidneys, urinary stones, and tumors of the urinary bladder, kidneys are the most common causes. In adult men, enlargement and/or infection of the prostate, bladder infection and...
What the risks are
There are no risks.
The following may create a false positive result:
Vaginal secretions (such as blood or heavy mucus discharge)
Trichomonas infection (such as trichomoniasis )
False negative tests can be caused by:
High levels of protein
High levels of vitamin C
How can the doctor tell if a total knee replacement (TKR) is infected? The patient history, an exam, and lab results are helpful. Since lab studies are so important, researchers want to know if the lab values for infection are the same in a knee with an implant compared to a knee without an implant. Fluid from the knee can be removed and checked for infection. The number of white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils are counted. Neutrophils are the WBCs that destroy bacteria in the body. The American College of Rheumatology sets the levels for bacterial infection. They say more than 50,000 WBCs and more than 75 percent neutrophils suggest infection. Normal joint fluid has less than 200 WBCs and fewer than 25 percent neutrophils. Should these same values be used if a knee with an implant is infected? That's what these doctors tried to find out. They looked at the records of 440 patients with TKRs. Eighty-six had WBCs measured before their TKR was revised. There were 50 knees free of infect...
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