In healthy men and women, urine does not contain any blood that can be seen with the eye, called "gross blood," nor does it contain red blood cells that can be discovered with the aid of a microscope. The discovery of either gross or microscopic blood in urine is a sure indication of the need to examine and evaluate the patient to discover the cause of this abnormality. The conditions that can lead to either gross or microscopic blood in the urine are many and varied. In adults, a careful history to describe the details of the bloody urine, a physical examination and laboratory studies are the first step in unearthing the cause. Imaging with x-rays, ultrasound, CAT/MRI scans are the next step and will usually discover the cause. In adult women, infection of the bladder or kidneys, urinary stones, and tumors of the urinary bladder, kidneys are the most common causes. In adult men, enlargement and/or infection of the prostate, bladder infection and...
Frequent urination is best described as having to urinate so often that your activities of daily life and sleep are adversely affected. This problem is not an illness itself but rather a symptom of a wide variety of conditions, some from diseases, and others from external factors. The urinary tract--the kidneys, bladder and drainage system--can be afflicted by infections at any site, which causea frequent urination as the urinary organs react to the infection. Bladder infections and those of the prostate are the most common urinary tract infections causing frequent urination, but infections of the kidneys may also result in this symptom. Treatment of the infections with appropriate antibiotics will usually cure the infection and stop the frequent voiding. Obstruction of the outflow of urine from the bladder is another cause of frequent urination. An enlarged prostate in men and scars in the urine tube draining the bladder impede the bladder’s ability...
What the risks are
There are no risks.
The following may create a false positive result:
Vaginal secretions (such as blood or heavy mucus discharge)
Trichomonas infection (such as trichomoniasis )
False negative tests can be caused by:
High levels of protein
High levels of vitamin C
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