First, patients taking NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) as well as the DMARD (disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug) Plaquenil can develop symptoms of tinnitus and decreased hearing.
Second, patients with Sjogren’s Syndrome can develop hearing loss, although severe hearing loss is unusual. Sjogren’s Syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which inflammation of the glands that produce tears and saliva lead to eye and mouth dryness. Sjogren’s Syndrome is also commonly associated with connective tissue disorders such as RA, lupus or scleroderma. People with RA see to have an increased incidence of also developing Sjogren’s syndrome. Patients with Sjogren's Syndrome often complain of tinnitus (ringing in the ears), mild hearing loss or ear pain caused by inflammation in the nasal cavity blocking the Eustachian tube.
Finally, some studies in recent years have shown that RA brings about hearing loss because of physical defects such as changes in the inner ear and how it functions. This change can produce either sensorineural hearing loss occurs when there is a change in how the cochlea functions (converting sound vibrations into nerve impulses), or conductive hearing loss (a physical defect or obstructions affects the passage of sound into the inner ear's cochlea). Sensorineural hearing loss is the more common form of hearing loss. Another study found that the joints within the ear deteriorate just like other joints more commonly affected by RA.
This past year, Mayo Clinic researchers contradicted the previous study results by finding that people with rheumatoid arthritis are no more likely to have hearing loss than other members of the general population. The study compared 29 patients ages 40 to 69 that had rheumatoid arthritis for more than five years with 30 participants of the same gender and age categories who did not have rheumatoid arthritis. All participants had comprehensive hearing tests and questionnaires to measure hearing and dizziness handicaps and assess their overall health. Seventeen of 29 patients with rheumatoid arthritis had abnormal hearing for at least one sound frequency (a measure of pitch), as did 14 of 30 of those without rheumatoid arthritis.
The researchers noted that the findings do not mean that hearing loss is never related to rheumatoid arthritis, it just means that RA patients are not more likely to develop hearing loss than the general population. They also found that the rheumatoid arthritis patients were more likely to perceive that they had hearing problems even though there was no comprehensive difference in their evaluations. Patients with more severe rheumatoid arthritis and had disabilities due to the disease were the most likely to have this perception. The researchers hypothesized that this may be due to an overall feeling of helplessness and general disability.