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Introduction A woman's hormone levels normally change throughout her life for a variety of reasons, and these hormonal changes can lead to changes in her breasts. Many such hormonal changes occur during pregnancy, changes that may influence a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer later in life. As a result, over several decades a considerable amount of research has been and continues to be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), influences a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer later in life. Current Knowledge In February 2003, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened a workshop of over 100 of the world’s leading experts who study pregnancy and breast cancer risk. Workshop participants reviewed existing population-based, clinical , and animal studies on the relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. Th...
In another of life's little ironies, my younger sister announced her first pregnancy a week after my miscarriage was complete. Thankfully, Dennis and I had grieved and processed our loss so we were absolutely thrilled to learn that we'd have a niece or nephew in nine short months!
My sister and brother-in-law weren't expecting to conceive so quickly, so I had several long phone calls discussing pregnancy in general with my sister. What a fun experience to be the older sister providing words of wisdom! Plus, I got to relive one of the most joyful, rewarding times of my life.
One thing quickly became apparent as I discussed due dates, morning sickness, doctor's appointments, and the like with my non-diabetic sister: how different high-risk pregnancies are from normal, uncomplicated pregnancies.
Diabetic pregnancies are so closely monitored, from the number of doctor's visits and blood tests to the repeated ultrasounds and managed deliveries...
Inadequate luteal phase
The main symptom is short or irregular menstrual cycles.
Signs and tests
Traditionally, a biopsy of the endometrium is the standard for diagnosing luteal phase defect. However, measuring the progesterone level in blood serum is often used as a means of diagnosis instead of endometrial biopsy due to the pain, difficulties of precise menstrual cycle dating, and expense associated with endometrial biopsy.
A blood serum progesterone level of lower than 10ng/mL one week prior to the start of menstruation or 7 days after the LH (luteinizing hormone) surge is generally accepted as a diagnosis of luteal phase defect.
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