Introduction A woman's hormone levels normally change throughout her life for a variety of reasons, and these hormonal changes can lead to changes in her breasts. Many such hormonal changes occur during pregnancy, changes that may influence a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer later in life. As a result, over several decades a considerable amount of research has been and continues to be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), influences a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer later in life. Current Knowledge In February 2003, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened a workshop of over 100 of the world’s leading experts who study pregnancy and breast cancer risk. Workshop participants reviewed existing population-based, clinical , and animal studies on the relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. Th...
Alternative Names Placental dysfunction Symptoms A woman with placenta insufficiency usually does not have any symptoms. Signs and tests A pregnant woman should receive proper prenatal care. The health care provider will measure the size of your growing womb (uterus) at each visit, starting about halfway through your pregnancy. Tests that may be done include: Pregnancy ultrasound to measure the growth of the baby (may be done more often than in a normal pregnancy) Monitoring of the babys heart rate (nonstress test) You may be asked to keep a daily record of how often the baby moves or kicks.
Inadequate luteal phase
The main symptom is short or irregular menstrual cycles.
Signs and tests
Traditionally, a biopsy of the endometrium is the standard for diagnosing luteal phase defect. However, measuring the progesterone level in blood serum is often used as a means of diagnosis instead of endometrial biopsy due to the pain, difficulties of precise menstrual cycle dating, and expense associated with endometrial biopsy.
A blood serum progesterone level of lower than 10ng/mL one week prior to the start of menstruation or 7 days after the LH (luteinizing hormone) surge is generally accepted as a diagnosis of luteal phase defect.
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