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Definition A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection of the urinary tract. This article discusses UTIs in children. The urinary tract includes the: Bladder Kidneys Ureters -- the tubes that take urine from each kidney to the bladder Urethra -- the tube that empties urine from the bladder to the outside See also: Catheter-associated UTI Urinary tract infection - adults Alternative Names UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children Causes, incidence, and risk factors Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can occur when bacteria find their way into the bladder or the kidneys. These bacteria are normally found on the skin around the anus or sometimes around the vagina. Normally, there are no bacteria in the urinary tract itself. However, certain things can make it easier for bacteria to enter or stay in the urinary tract. These include: A problem in the urinary tract, called vesicoureteral reflux, which is usually pres...
Recurrent cystitis consists of at least 2 infections of the bladder in 6 months, or 3 infections in 1 year. It is confirmed by tests that show the growth of bacteria in the urine. See also urinary tract infection .
Cystitis - recurrent; Urinary tract infection - recurrent; UTI - recurrent
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Recurrent cystitis is most often caused by a type of bacteria called E. coli , the leading cause of all urinary tract infections. About 25-50% of all young, healthy women who suffer their first infection will develop a second one within 6 months. Although the risk for cystitis increases with age, the incidence of recurrent infections is only about 10-20% for people over 60.
Risk factors for recurrent infections include sexual intercourse with multiple partners, use of spermicidal agents, genetic factors including a family history of recurrent infections, first infection at a young age, and certain anatomic...
Definition Bacterial pericarditis is irritation and swelling of the sac that surrounds the heart (pericardium), due to infection by bacteria. See also: Pericarditis Alternative Names Purulent pericarditis Causes, incidence, and risk factors Bacterial infections are one cause of pericarditis . The bacterial infection causes the pericardium to become swollen and inflamed. Pain occurs as a result of the inflamed pericardium rubbing against the heart. Fluid may build up in the pericardial sac. The most common bacteria that cause this condition are: Haemophilus influenza (also called H. flu) Meningococci Pneumococci Staphylococci Streptococci Since the introduction of antibiotics, bacterial pericarditis has become rare. Pericarditis most often occurs in men between the ages of 20 and 50, usually after some type of respiratory infection. It can also occur after heart surgery or skin or mouth infections that produce bacterial infection of the blood (bacteremia).
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