The lower leg has two bones: the tibia and the fibula. The tibia is the larger bone, sometimes called the "shin bone." The shin portion is also called the tibial shaft . Fractures of the shaft often heal with an angle. In the past, these fractures were treated with a cast, but now surgery is used. Surgery results in less angulation. Doctors at a large hospital in England studied 164 cases of tibial fracture from over 30 years ago. All had been treated with a cast. The doctors X-rayed all the patients and remeasured the angle of the healed bone. These findings were compared with patients' current status. The long-term outcome after a tibial shaft fracture was good for most of the patients. There were mild symptoms of knee and ankle pain and arthritis. However, these were not caused by the previous fracture. In a small number of patients, fracture in the upper part of the tibia (closer to the knee) resulted in more wear and tear on the knee joint. A 30-year study of the alignment of the tib...
I have bumps all over
my arms. Is this acne? How can I get rid of them?
If these bumps are small and rough and mostly occur on your
upper arms and thighs, it's more likely that you have an eczema-related
condition known as keratosis pilaris. It's a very common hereditary condition
(more than 50% of people have it) that creates raised bumps on the skin. It's
more common in women and tends to improve with age.
Keratosis pilaris occurs when skin cells build up in the
hair follicle, preventing the hair shaft from reaching the surface of the skin.
Often, this results in minor inflammation, causing the appearance of red or
brown spots beneath each raised bump. Since this affects the pores, keratosis
pilaris can cause or exacerbate blemishes, especially in adolescence. In fact,
up to 80% of adolescents experience keratosis pilaris.
Usually, keratosis pilaris is viewed as physically
unsightly, but not medically harmful. There is no "cure" for the condition, but
About once or
twice a month, I see a young male in his late teens or early 20s who come to me
to evaluate a bump or lesion on his penis. Interestingly, many of these men
have sought evaluation before and STILL don't know what they have.
Here are the
most common causes of this symptom:
grouped lesions on the penis that are painful? Think about genital herpes as the cause. These lesions can also occur on the buttocks or anal area. The
initial outbreak may be associated with fever. Herpes is the most common STD in
and most genital lesions in men are herpes.
Have a bump
that looks like a wart or has a cauliflower appearance? You may have genital
warts. Warts are caused by certain strains of human papillomavirus --
different ones than those that cause cervical cancer in women. In most cases,
the warts do not cause symptoms, but occasionally they can burn, itch or be
tender. They can also produce a discharge. The lesions may be tan, pink or
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