The cervix is the lower end of the uterus. It is located at the top of the vagina and is about one inch long. The cervical canal passes through the cervix, allowing blood from a menstrual period and a baby (fetus) to pass from the womb (uterus) into the vagina.
The cervical canal also allows sperm to pass from the vagina into the uterus.
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)
D and C
A Colloid Cyst is a collection of gelatinous material in the brain. Colloid cysts arise within the brain. The cysts are well-encapsulated and consist of a layer of connective tissue covered with cells. The wall encapsulates a thick, gelatinous (colloid-like) material. Symptomatic cysts vary from 6 mm to 9 cm in diameter, but usually range from 1 to 3 cm. They usually take origin from the roof of the third ventricle just posterior to the foramen of Monro within the brain (the third ventricle is the median cavity in the brain bounded by the thalamus and the hypothalamus on either side, and anteriorly by the optic chiasm). A colloid cyst in the third ventricle of the brain can lead to hydrocephalus . Hydrocephalus is the increased accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain. The cause of colloid cysts is unknown. Symptoms usually occur in adults and may be dramatic, with episodes of headache , weakness of the limbs, and loss of consciousness. These symptoms are attrib...
New research published online in June in the journal "Nature Medicine" finds that the TNF inhibitor etanercept (Enbrel) may offer treatment and hope to people with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). ADPKD is a genetically inherited renal disease that affects about 1 in 800 people. The disease causes the kidneys to develop cysts and since there are no treatments currently available to prevent the cysts, ADPKD can eventually lead to end stage renal failure and requiring kidney transplants.
The researchers at the Institute for medical Research in Kansas City, Missouri first analyzed several patients with the kidney disease and found that the fluid in the kidney cysts had high levels of tumor becrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). They then genetically engineered mice to develop polycystic kidney dis...
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