Can Parenting Styles Affect Child Anxiety?

by Jerry Kennard, Ph.D. Medical Reviewer

The idea that there is a right or wrong way to bring up children is challenged by findings that reveal how certain parenting styles work better than others. Parenting needs to be tailored to children's personalities say psychologists and psychiatrists. Research shows that a good fit between parenting style and child temperament can reduce the risk of anxiety and depression symptoms by 50 percent in school-aged children. Mismatches increase risk of such symptoms two-fold.

The danger of overprotectiveness

At the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, psychiatrist Michael Liebowitz, M.D., reported that parental overprotectiveness brings out the worst in children. An unusually high proportion of panic patients, he says, report having had overprotective parents. Overprotectiveness results in children experiencing chronic stress in situations that others find unthreatening and this can continue into adulthood.

Psychologist Doreen Arcus, Ph.D., found two basic parental philosophies in middle-class loving parents. The first views their child as sensitive and needing to be protected from stress. They tend not to set firm limits on behavior and use distraction as a way of stopping or preventing their child from behaving in ways deemed inappropriate. The second views discipline as education. This requires the child to accommodate to their environment. A child playing in the trash, for example, would be told "no" and why they must stop. This child learns the boundaries and how to extinguish their fear response. The first child does not.

Parents who allow children to cope with day-to-day stressors, but who offer emotional and practical support, help their child to develop resilience and strategies for coping. Overprotective parents who take responsibilities away from their child increase the risk of chronic stress due to lack of coping skills.

The capacity for children to regulate their own emotions

The ability of a child to regulate their own emotions and actions is associated with lower levels of anxiety and depression. Some children appear to develop this "effortful control,” or the ability to inhibit their instinctual response or reaction in favor of a less dominant response or reaction, regardless of parenting style and therefore have fewer symptoms of anxiety or depression.

Children are more likely to show symptoms of anxiety and depression when their parents use high levels of guidance or provide little scope for their child to develop independent action or freedoms. This is the case even in children who show signs of effortful control.

The capacity for children to regulate their own emotions and actions varies considerably. In children with who demonstrate low levels of effortful control whose mothers provide structure but less autonomy, anxiety levels are low. This appears to counter the idea that all children need autonomy to learn how to adapt to challenges.
Children with low levels of effortful control do seem to benefit from a little extra help and structure. In fact, their risk of developing symptoms of anxiety doubles if they have mothers who provide little control.

In summary, children who have difficulties regulating their emotions and behaviors require and benefit from extra parental intervention. Children who have good levels of self-control have an increased risk of anxiety and depression if parents are overcontrolling.


Kiff. C.J., Lengua. L. J., Bush. N. R. (2011) Temperament Variation in Sensitivity to Parenting: Predicting Changes in Depression and Anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. DOI: 10.1007/s10802-011-9539-x

PT Staff. (1994, September 01). Parenting style may foster anxiety overprotective parents may raiseworried kids. Retrieved from style-may-foster-anxiety

Jerry Kennard, Ph.D.
Meet Our Writer
Jerry Kennard, Ph.D.

Jerry Kennard, Ph.D., is a Chartered Psychologist and Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society. Jerry’s work background is in mental health and, most recently, higher education. He is the author of various self-help books and is co-founder of