Do you watch the Biggest Loser? If so, you have seen each contestant visit a doctor at the start of the season and many times they’ll learn their actual ‘biological’ age. This usually ends up being a shocker, such as a 28 year-old whose physical condition is that of a 55 year-old or something drastic like that. Telomeres are a tool that can be used to fairly accurately identify your biological age.
I recently participated in a webinar hosted by Spectra Cell Laboratories and lead by Dr. Mark Houston discussing telomeres.
What is a telomere?
Telomeres are a DNA sequence that appears at the end of each chromosome. Chromosomes comprised of DNA are in each cell of our body. Our DNA is protected at each end by telomeres. Dr. Houston describes a telomere as a safety cap or ball cap on the end of each chromosome. They protect the chromosome and DNA from things like oxidative stress. As the telomere becomes damaged the chromosome and cell function ineffectively the cell begins to die.
As a normal part of aging, telomeres become shorter. Once a telomere becomes shortened there is no way to lengthen the telomere.
There are many factors that influence how quickly telomeres shorten. Here are some of the factors that impact telomere length:
1. Aging (as I just started, telomeres shorten as a normal part of aging)
2. Coronary heart disease
3. Hypertension (high blood pressure)
7. Increased pulse pressure
8. Aortic stenosis
9. Oxidative stress
11. Decreased nitric oxide
12. Lack of arginine
13. Lack of estrogen (women tend to age slower than men becomes estrogen protects the telomere)
Why Telomere Length Matters
Studies have shown a link between telomere length and hypertension, diabetes, insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, obesity, and heart disease.
A study published in a 2007 issues of the American Journal of Epidemiology found shortened telomeres to correspond with a threefold increased risk for myocardial infarction and stroke. The study results support the hypotheses that telomere shortening may be related to aging and the disease associated with aging through such factors as oxidative stress, inflammation, and progression to cardiovascular disease.
Shortened telomeres are now recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. What does this mean? Let’s say you have no risk factors for heart disease - no family history, your weight is within the ideal range, your cholesterol levels are healthy, etc. BUT, you smoke. Smoking is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Even if everything else is perfect, your risk for developing cardiovascular disease is still increased because you smoke. The same is true for telomeres. If you have no risk factors for heart disease, but your telomere length is shortened, you are at increased risk.
How to Slow Telomere Shortening
Let me restate what I said above - Once your telomeres are shortened there is no way to re-lengthen your telomeres. What you can do is take action to slow the shortening. Here are some steps you can take to keep your telomeres intact:
- Avoid an inflammatory diet that promotes oxidative stress (refined carbs, fast food, processed food, trans fat, artificial sweeteners, soda, etc.)
- Consume a diet high in antioxidants (omega 3’s, fruits, vegetables, etc.)
Decrease your daily calorie intake
- Fast 12 hours each night at least 4 days a week
- Lose weight or maintain ideal body weight (decrease visceral fat)
- Increase your physical activity (interval training combining aerobic and resistance training for at least 1 hour per day is preferred over long duration aerobic activity - too much exercise increases oxidative stress)
- Get at least 8 hours of sleep each night (best results for those who go to bed between 9-10 p.m.)
- Decrease stress
- Stop smoking
- Select organic foods
- Vitamin E
- Vitamin C
- Vitamin D
- Omega 3 Fatty Acids
- Folate & Vitamin B if needed to treat elevated homocysteine levels
Be sure to discuss all supplements with your doctor.
There are several medications that impact telomere length, such as bio-identical hormone replacement therapy. If you are interested in using medication to slow shortening of telomeres, I recommend discussing further with your doctor.
Where to Start
If you want to promote optimal telomere length, start by accessing your coronary heart disease risk facts, particularly the ones you can control. This would include such factors as smoking, weight, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1C, blood pressure, homocysteine levels, C - reactive protein, and insulin resistance. Take steps to get each of these factors within an optimal range.
If you are looking for guidance on lowering cholesterol, you can access the free e-course How to Lower Cholesterol in 8 Simple Steps at http://lowercholesterolwithlisa.com.
Lisa Nelson RD, a registered dietitian since 1999, provides clients step-by-step guidance to lower cholesterol and lower blood pressure, so they can live life and enjoy their family for years to come. Because her own health is the foundation of her expertise, you can trust that Lisa will make it truly possible for you to see dramatic changes in your health, without unrealistic fads or impossibly difficult techniques. She can be found on Twitter @lisanelsonrd and Facebook at hearthealthmadeeasy.