Editor's Note: This article was originally written by Dr. Robb Mapou.
In my last installment, with the help of my colleagues, I tried to explain how teachers can work effectively with children with dyslexia, teaching them how to read and spell more effectively. In this installment, again with input from my colleagues, I provide resources for teachers and others who help children learn to read. These are applicable to both normal readers and students with dyslexia.
Teachers can learn how written English represents phonology, orthography, and morphology in predictable ways by reading the following:
Balmuth, M. (2009). The roots of phonics: A historical introduction (Revised Ed.). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
Henry, M. (2010). Unlocking literacy: Effective decoding and spelling instruction (2nd Ed.). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
Nunes, T., and Bryant, P. (2006). Improving literacy by teaching morphemes (Improving Learning Series). New York: Routledge.
Nunes, T., and Bryant, P. (2009). Children's reading and spelling: Beyond the first steps. Oxford UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
They can then apply this knowledge when teaching students with dyslexia. Teachers can learn about research showing how to teach reading and spelling for deep orthographies at this link:
- Berninger, V., and Fayol, M. (2008). Why spelling is important and how to teach it effectively. Encyclopedia of language and literacy development (pp. 1-13). London, ON: Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network. h ttp://www.literacyencyclopedia.ca/pdfs/topic.php?topId=234
Teachers can learn practical, research-validated ways to teach reading and spelling for deep orthographies in these resources:
- Wasowicz, J., Apel, K., Masterson, J. and Whitney, A. (2004). SPELL-Links to reading and writing - A word study curriculum and supplemental program for K-Adult. Evanston, IL: Learning by Design, Inc. http://www.learningbydesign.com/products/index.htm
- Henry, M.K. (2010). Words: Integrated decoding and spelling instruction based on word origin and word structure (2nd Ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed, Inc. Five units of lessons covering Letter-Sound Correspondences, Syllable Patterns, Layers of Language (differences in words of Anglo-Saxon, Latin, and Greek origin), Morpheme Patterns, and Practice Reading and Spelling Multisyllabic Content Area Words.
Berninger, V., and Wolf, B. (2009). Helping students with dyslexia and dysgraphia make connections: Differentiated instruction lesson plans in reading and writing. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
Berninger, V., and Abbott, S. (2003). Process Assessment of the Learner (PAL): Research-based reading and writing lessons. San Antonio, TX: Pearson Psych Corp. Also see PAL Reproducibles for the lessons that are included.
Bear, D., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., and Johnston, F. (2008). Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
Finally, the following instructional materials may be useful for teachers of older students:
- Ebbers, S. (2004). Vocabulary through morphemes: Suffixes, prefixes, and roots for intermediate grades. Sopris West. Includes book, CD, and reproducibles. Susan also has a great blog called Vocabulogic, where she often discusses morphemes, morphemic awareness, etc. http://vocablog-plc.blogspot.com/
- Henry, M.K., and Redding, N.C. (1996). P_atterns for success in reading and spelling_. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. This kit includes a Teacher Manual (about 150 lessons), six card packs (irregular sight words, basic letter-sound correspondences, prefixes, suffixes, common Latin roots and Greek combining forms) in different colors, Student Word Lists, and Student Activities for reinforcement (4 activities for each of the lessons).
In my next installment, which will come after the first of the year, I will discuss more about the brain basis for dyslexia and intervention for adults. Happy holidays to everyone