What Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?

Health Professional

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that affects about one in 10 women and is one of the most common causes of infertility. Women with PCOS have an imbalance of hormones. Most researchers believe that PCOS symptoms are the result of a complicated set of circumstances, including irregular periods, an increase in the amount of androgens (a hormone) in the body, and insulin resistance.

Some of the possible symptoms include:

  • Irregular periods
  • Acne
  • Excessive hair growth in places you don’t expect it, like your face or chest (known as hirsutism)
  • Multiple fluid-filled cysts on the ovaries (hence the condition’s name)
  • Skin tags or dark patches on the skin
  • Being overweight or struggling to lose weight

One of the difficult things about diagnosing PCOS is that the symptoms are often mistaken for other conditions because they may come and go and have other underlying causes. For example, with acne or oily skin, you might be quick to write it off as the result of puberty or normal hormone changes throughout the month. Some symptoms, like an irregular period, can also be masked by other medications or illnesses. But when you see several of these symptoms together, it may be a sign of PCOS.

How do you diagnose PCOS?

The first thing your doctor will do is to take a family history. Then they will ask about your medical history, including a detailed look at your menstrual cycles. Some people with PCOS have periods that are few and far between, while others may have periods that come really close together. You may also have heavy periods.

From there, your doctor will do some blood work to check your hormone levels, your blood sugar, and your cholesterol. You will also have a physical exam. This will include checking your blood pressure, weight, and BMI. They will also do a pelvic exam with an ultrasound of your ovaries to look for any cysts.

Treatment for PCOS

PCOS treatment is usually targeted toward the symptoms. If you are not trying to get pregnant, something as simple as birth control pills or other forms of hormonal birth control can help restore a balance to your hormones, relieving some of the symptoms. You may also be prescribed a medication like Metformin (a drug often used to treat diabetes) to help with your blood sugar. And, if high androgens are an issue, sometimes medication can be used to help combat those levels. Additionally, losing weight may be recommended to help with certain symptoms.

PCOS and your health

While some of the symptoms of PCOS may get better the closer you get to menopause, like the abnormal periods, you still face certain increased health risks because of PCOS. This can include an increased risk for the following problems:

  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Depression and anxiety

Some studies also indicate that your risk is higher for endometrial cancer.

Trying to get pregnant with PCOS

Many women do not know they have PCOS until they try to get pregnant. At this point, problems with conceiving lead them to seek medical help, and then they receive the diagnosis. This is why it’s important to tell your doctor or midwife all of your symptoms so they can potentially diagnose you before you’d like to get pregnant.

There is no one-size-fits-all fertility treatment for women trying to get pregnant with PCOS. Your treatment will be tailored to your specific symptoms. For example, if you aren’t ovulating, medications that induce ovulation may be given. For women who are overweight, sometimes losing weight will help regulate the menstrual cycle long enough that they are able to get pregnant without much other help. Some women with PCOS wind up needing surgery or using in vitro fertilization (IVF) to get pregnant.

Pregnancy with PCOS

Most studies show that women with PCOS have an increased risk of pregnancy complications due to the increased risk of other conditions like gestational diabetes and high blood pressure. There may also be a higher risk of miscarriage and preterm labor, though not all studies agree.

Bottom line

PCOS is one of the most common endocrine (hormonal) disorders in women. While it can be blamed for a variety of symptoms, addressing these symptoms does not always mitigate the additional health risks that come with it. This is why seeking care from a knowledgeable physician early on can help you reduce your life-long health risks.


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. April 2017. Accessed November 2017.

National Institutes of Health (NIH). How do healthcare providers diagnose PCOS? Accessed November 2017.

See more helpful articles:

Getting Pregnant When You Have Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Seeing Your Doctor for Preconception Care: What to Expect

Top 3 Myths Your Gynecologist Wants You to Stop Believing