Understanding Non-Small Cell vs. Small Cell Lung Cancer
There are two major types of lung cancer: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and each one has several subtypes. The differences are based on how the cells for each type look under a microscope. Your treatment may vary depending on the type and subtype of cancer you have.
Non-small cell lung cancer
About 85 percent of lung cancers are non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), according to American Cancer Society. Within this category there are numerous subtypes. Traditionally, these have been treated as one disease with a one-size fits all perspective. Treatment varied only by the stage of the cancer when diagnosed.
Treating by subtypes
Research has shown that basing treatment on the subtypes may positively impact treatment, according to a report published in the journal Lung Cancer. The researchers found that the subtypes differ in cell of origin, location within the lung, and growth pattern. Determining the subtype can allow the use of more targeted therapies.
Subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer
- Squamous cell carcinoma:__ This subtype accounts for 25% of all lung cancers, according to Lungcancer.org.
- Adenocarcinoma: The most common type of lung cancer in the U.S., according to Lungcancer.org.
- Large-cell carcinoma: This accounts for 10 percent of NSCLC’s, according to Lungcancer.org.
Less common subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer
Less common subtypes include pleomorphic, carcinoid tumor, salivary gland carcinoma, and unclassified. These subtypes account for only a small percentage of NSCLC’s, according to a report published in the journal Lung Cancer.
Signs and symptoms
- Cough that doesn’t go away and gets worse over time
- Chest discomfort or pain
- Trouble breathing
- Blood in sputum
- Loss of appetite
- Weight loss without an apparent reason
- Trouble swallowing
- Swelling in face and neck
Treatments for non-small cell lung cancer
Treatments for NSCLC include surgery to remove parts of the lung, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, cryosurgery, and electrocautery.
Subtypes of small cell lung cancer
- Small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer): This is the majority of SCLC’s, and is called oat cell because the cells are small, round, and resemble oats.
- Combined small cell carcinoma: This is small cell carcinoma combined with an additional component, such as NSCLC, according to a report in the American Journal of Clinical Pathology. Response to chemotherapy is very poor.
Most aggressive form of lung cancer: small cell lung cancer
SCLC is the most aggressive form of lung cancer. It usually starts in breathing tubes in the center of the chest and spreads rapidly to other parts of the body including the brain, liver, and bone.
Symptoms of small cell lung cancer
Some of the symptoms of SCLC, according to the National Cancer Institute, are:
- Blood in the sputum
- Chest pain
- Loss of appetite
- Weight loss
- Shortness of breath
Treatment for small cell lung cancer
Because SCLC spreads quickly, surgery is not usually an option. Most treatment plans include chemotherapy and radiation. Even after surgery, chemotherapy and radiation are often needed to help control or stop the spread of the cancer.